Severe tardive dyskinesia in affective disorders: treatment with vitamin E and C

Neuropsychobiology. 2002;46 Suppl 1:28-30. doi: 10.1159/000068019.


Tardive dyskinesia caused by antipsychotic treatment is a severe problem not only in the management of schizophrenia, but also of affective disorders. Vitamin E monotherapy has been used in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia. Pharmacologists warn against high dosage of vitamin E because of its pro-oxidative effects on low-density lipoprotein with consecutive cardiac risks. Addition of vitamin C probably reduces this risk because of its interactions with vitamin E, i.e. vitamin C reduces vitamin E radicals formed when vitamin E scavenges the oxygen radicals. We have therefore tested the safety and efficacy of combining vitamin C and E in a sample of patients with affective disorders and tardive dyskinesia who had previously been treated with antipsychotics due to psychotic symptoms. In all 6 patients, a reduction of tardive symptomatology was seen. In our sample, no side effects were observed. Further studies on this combination therapy are suggested.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Ascorbic Acid / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / drug therapy*
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Mood Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Vitamin E / therapeutic use*


  • Vitamin E
  • Ascorbic Acid