Ruptured subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy attributed to ketorolac-induced coagulopathy

Surg Endosc. 2003 Apr;17(4):659. doi: 10.1007/s00464-002-4255-9. Epub 2003 Feb 10.


Ketorolac is the first injectable nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug used as an analgesic in the perioperative period. However, gastrointestinal bleeding is a risk associated with its perioperative administration. A 23-year-old woman was admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Her medical history was unremarkable except for a complaint of intermittent right upper quadrant pain for several months. The operative procedure was uneventful. Thirty milligrams of ketorolac were given intravenously just prior to termination of surgery. Eighteen hours after surgery, the patient developed right upper quadrant pain associated with tachycardia and hypotension. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a large subcapsular hematoma of the liver. A few hours later, the hemodynamic condition worsened, and the patient was taken to the operating room. Laparoscopic exploration showed a ruptured subcapsular hematoma with active bleeding. No evidence of parenchymal injury of the gallbladder bed was found. The hematoma was evacuated and hemostasis was performed laparoscopically. Ketorolac has a strong antiplatelet activity and further acts by the inhibition of platelet function, which may last as long as 24 h after the last administration. Surgeons and anesthesiologists should be aware that ketorolac may cause or aggravate bleeding.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects*
  • Blood Coagulation / drug effects
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury*
  • Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic*
  • Female
  • Hematoma / chemically induced*
  • Hematoma / diagnosis
  • Hematoma / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Ketorolac / adverse effects*
  • Laparoscopy
  • Liver Diseases / diagnosis
  • Liver Diseases / surgery*
  • Rupture, Spontaneous


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Ketorolac