Automatic segmentation of echocardiographic sequences by active appearance motion models

IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2002 Nov;21(11):1374-83. doi: 10.1109/TMI.2002.806427.


A novel extension of active appearance models (AAMs) for automated border detection in echocardiographic image sequences is reported. The active appearance motion model (AAMM) technique allows fully automated robust and time-continuous delineation of left ventricular (LV) endocardial contours over the full heart cycle with good results. Nonlinear intensity normalization was developed and employed to accommodate ultrasound-specific intensity distributions. The method was trained and tested on 16-frame phase-normalized transthoracic four-chamber sequences of 129 unselected infarct patients, split randomly into a training set (n = 65) and a test set (n = 64). Borders were compared to expert drawn endocardial contours. On the test set, fully automated AAMM performed well in 97% of the cases (average distance between manual and automatic landmark points was 3.3 mm, comparable to human interobserver variabilities). The ultrasound-specific intensity normalization proved to be of great value for good results in echocardiograms. The AAMM was significantly more accurate than an equivalent set of two-dimensional AAMs.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Echocardiography / methods*
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement / methods*
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Models, Statistical
  • Motion*
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnostic imaging*
  • Observer Variation
  • Pattern Recognition, Automated
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Single-Blind Method