Objectives: This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plasma markers of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) reflect acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Background: Oxidized LDL contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but its role in ACS is not established.
Methods: Serial plasma samples were prospectively obtained from patients with an acute myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 8), unstable angina (UA) (n = 15), stable coronary artery disease (CAD) (n = 17), angiographically normal coronary arteries (n = 8), and from healthy subjects (n = 18), at entry into the study, hospital discharge (MI group only), and at 30, 120, and 210 days. Chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantitate plasma levels of: 1) immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG OxLDL autoantibody titers (presented as a mean OxLDL autoantibody titer by averaging the results of four distinct epitopes); 2) LDL-autoantibody immune complexes (LDL-IC); and 3) minimally OxLDL measured by antibody E06 (OxLDL-E06), as determined by the content of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) per apolipoprotein B-100.
Results: Baseline OxLDL IgG autoantibody levels were higher in the MI group (p < 0.0001). At 30-day follow-up, the mean IgM OxLDL titers increased by 48% (p < 0.001) and 20% (p < 0.001), and IgM LDL-IC increased by 60% (p < 0.01) and 26% (p < 0.01) in the MI and UA groups, respectively. The OxLDL-E06 levels increased by 54% (p < 0.01) in the MI group at hospital discharge and by 36% at 30 days. No significant changes in any OxLDL markers were noted in the other groups. The OxLDL-E06 levels strongly paralleled the acute rise in lipoprotein(a), or Lp(a), in the MI group, suggesting that toxic OxPL are preferentially bound to Lp(a). Oxidized LDL-E06 also correlated extremely well with Lp(a) in the entire cohort of patients (r = 0.91, p < 0.0001).
Conclusions: Circulating OxLDL-specific markers strongly reflect the presence of ACS, implying immune awareness to newly exposed oxidation-specific epitopes and possible release of OxLDL in the circulation. The OxLDL-E06 measurements provide novel insights into plaque rupture and the potential atherogenicity of Lp(a).