Objective: To determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with the development of preeclampsia.
Methods: A cohort of 1,115 healthy pregnant women were enrolled at less than 26 weeks' gestation and followed until delivery. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations were performed at enrollment and within 48 hours of delivery to determine the presence of severe periodontal disease or periodontal disease progression. Preeclampsia was defined as blood pressure greater than 140/90 on two separate occasions, and at least 1+ proteinuria on catheterized urine specimen. The potential effects of maternal age, race, smoking, gestational age at delivery, and insurance status were analyzed, and adjusted odds ratios for preeclampsia were calculated using multivariable logistic regression.
Results: During the study period, 763 women delivered live infants and had data available for analysis. Thirty-nine women had preeclampsia. Women were at higher risk for preeclampsia if they had severe periodontal disease at delivery (adjusted odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1, 5.3), or if they had periodontal disease progression during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.0, 4.4).
Conclusion: After adjusting for other risk factors, active maternal periodontal disease during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for the development of preeclampsia.