In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rad54 protein participates in the recombinational repair of double-strand DNA breaks together with the Rad51, Rad52, Rad55 and Rad57 proteins. In vitro, Rad54 interacts with Rad51 and stimulates DNA strand exchange promoted by Rad51 protein. Rad54 is a SWI2/SNF2-related protein that possesses double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity and changes DNA topology in an ATP hydrolysis-dependent manner. Here we show that Rad54 catalyzes bidirectional nucleosome redistribution by sliding nucleosomes along DNA. Nucleosome redistribution is greatly stimulated by the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament but does not require the presence of homologous single-stranded DNA within the filament. On the basis of these data, we propose that Rad54 facilitates chromatin remodeling and, perhaps more generally, protein clearing at the homology search step of genetic recombination.