Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of trabeculectomy with or without mitomycin-C (MMC) in the management of glaucoma in aphakia and pseudophakia following congenital cataract surgery.
Patients and methods: All patients of glaucoma with aphakia or pseudophakia who underwent trabeculectomy with or without MMC from January 1989 to April 2000 were included. The medical records of 19 consecutive patients (23 eyes) were reviewed. Data collected from a retrospective chart review were analysed. Outcome measures were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Pre- and postoperative intraocular pressures (IOPs), visual acuities, success rate, bleb characteristics, surgical failure and complications were the main outcome measures. Successful IOP control was defined as an IOP between 6 and 21 mmHg, without antiglaucoma medications, without further antiglaucoma surgery and without any sight-threatening complication.
Results: The mean age of patients was 8.8+/-5.5 years at the time of trabeculectomy with MMC compared to 11.0+/-12.4 years for trabeculectomy without MMC. Eight patients underwent trabeculectomy with MMC and 11 patients underwent trabeculectomy without MMC. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of visual acuity, IOP, antiglaucoma medications, age at cataract surgery and at trabeculectomy. The IOP reduced from a preoperative level of 34.2+/-8.9 mmHg (range: 20-52) to a postoperative level of 18.4+/-12.2 mmHg (range: 2-60) with a mean follow-up of 24.2+/-17.9 months. The mean reduction in IOP in the MMC group was 15.5+/-17.3 and 16.3+/-13.8 mmHg in the other group (P = 0.967). Overall, complete success was achieved in 36.8%, qualified success in 21.1% and surgical failure in 42.1% of patients with a mean follow-up of 24.2+/-17.9 months. There was no difference in the success between the two groups at the last follow-up. One patient developed bleb-related endophthalmitis in both eyes following trabeculectomy with MMC.
Conclusions: The success rate of trabeculectomy in glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery was 36.8% at the end of 3 years. The present study proves a poor success rate of trabeculectomy in a small series of aphakic Asian Indian patients even with the use of MMC.