Aim: This study investigated the effects of St John's wort extract (SJW) on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CSA).
Methods: In an open-label study, 11 renal transplant patients received 600 mg SJW extract daily for 14 days in addition to their regular regimen of CSA. Blood concentrations of CSA and its metabolites AM1, AM1C, AM9, AM19, and AM4N were measured by HPLC.
Results: After 2 weeks of SJW coadministration, dose-corrected AUC0-12, Cmax and Ctrough values for CSA decreased significantly by 46%[geometric mean ratio baseline/SJW (95% CI): 1.83 (1.63-2.05)], 42%[1.72 (1.42-2.08)], and 41%[1.70 (1.17-2.47)], respectively. CSA doses were increased from a median of 2.7 mg day(-1) kg(-1) at baseline to 4.2 mg day(-1) kg(-1) at day 15, with the first dose adjustment required only 3 days after initiation of SJW treatment. Additionally, the metabolite pattern of CSA was substantially altered during SJW treatment. Whereas dose-corrected AUC values for AM1, AM1c and AM4N significantly decreased by 59%, 61%, and 23% compared with baseline, AUC values for AM9 and AM19 were unchanged. Following the increase in CSA dose, observed AUC and Cmax values for AM9, AM19, and AM4N increased by 20-51% and 43-90%, respectively.
Conclusion: Administration of SJW extract to patients receiving CSA treatment resulted in a rapid and significant reduction of plasma CSA concentrations. Additionally, the substantial alterations in CSA metabolite kinetics observed may affect the toxicity profile of the drug.