Excess ER stress induces caspase-12 activation and/or cytochrome c release, causing caspase-9 activation. Little is known about their relationship during ER stress-mediated cell death. Upon ER stress, P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells showed activation of various caspases, including caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12, and extensive DNA fragmentation. We examined the relationship between ER stress-mediated cytochrome c/caspase-9 and caspase-12 activation by using caspase-9- and caspase-8-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts and a P19 EC cell clone [P19-36/12 (-) cells] lacking expression of caspase-12. Caspase-9 and caspase-8 deficiency inhibited and delayed the onset of DNA fragmentation but did not inhibit caspase-12 processing induced by ER stress. P19-36/12 (-) cells underwent apoptosis upon ER stress, with cytochrome c release and caspase-8 and caspase-9 activation. The dominant negative form of FADD and z-VAD-fmk inhibited caspase-8, caspase-9, Bid processing, cytochrome c release, and DNA fragmentation induced by ER stress, suggesting that caspase-8 and caspase-9 are the main caspases involved in ER stress-mediated apoptosis of P19-36/12 (-) cells. Caspase-8 deficiency also inhibited the cytochrome c release induced by ER stress. Thus, in parallel with the caspase-12 activation, ER stress triggers caspase-8 activation, resulting in cytochrome c/caspase-9 activation via Bid processing.
Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)