Models of Trajectory Formation and Temporal Interaction of Reach and Grasp

J Mot Behav. 1993 Sep;25(3):175-192. doi: 10.1080/00222895.1993.9942048.


Our goal was to create a principled account of a body of behavioral kinematic data on reaching and grasping. We show how to transform an optimality principle for overall hand transport into a feedback control law and then incorporate look-ahead modules in the controller to compensate for delays in sensory feedback. This model describes the kinematics of hand transport under a variety of circumstances, including target perturbations. We then develop a model for the temporal coordination of reach and grasp. We provide an optimization principle for hand preshaping that trades off the costs of maintaining the hand in an open position and the cost of accelerating the change in grip size. This yields a control system for preshaping. We then show that a model that uses only expected duration for coordination, rather than kinematic or dynamic variables, can describe the kinematics of interaction of hand transport and preshape under a variety of circumstances, including perturbations of object position and object size.