Conservation of microsatellite loci, heterozygous in Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus globulus, allowed us to propose homeologies among genetic linkage groups in these species, supported by at least three SSR loci in two different linkage groups. Marker-trait associations for sprouting and adventitious rooting ability were also compared in the four species. Putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing vegetative propagation traits were located on homeologous linkage groups. Our findings indicate high transferability of microsatellite markers between Eucalyptus species of the Symphyomyrtus subgenus and establish foundations for the use of synteny in the genetic analysis of this genus. Microsatellite markers should help integrate eucalypt genetic linkage maps from various sources. The availability of comparative linkage maps provides a basis of more-efficient use of genetic information for molecular breeding and evolutionary studies in Eucalyptus.