Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed longevity in rice were identified using 98 backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from a cross between a japonica variety Nipponbare and an indica variety Kasalath. Seeds of each BIL were kept for 12 months at 30 degrees C in dry conditions to promote loss of viability. To measure seed longevity, we performed an additional aging-processing treatment for 2 months at 30 degrees C maintaining seeds at 15% moisture content. We measured the germination percent of these treated seeds at 25 degrees C for 7 days as the degree of seed longevity. The germination of BILs ranged from 0 to 100% with continuous variation. Three putative QTLs for seed longevity, qLG-2, qLG-4 and qLG-9, were detected on chromosome 2, 4 and 9, respectively. Kasalath alleles increased the seed longevity at these QTLs. The QTL with the largest effect, qLG-9, explained 59.5% of total phenotypic variation in BILs. The other two QTLs, qLG-2 and qLG-4, explained 13.4 and 11.6% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. We also verified the effect of the Kasalath allele of qLG-9 using chromosome segment substitution lines. Furthermore, QTLs for seed dormancy were identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 11. Based on the comparison of the chromosomal location of QTLs for seed longevity and seed dormancy, these traits seem to be controlled by different genetic factors.