QTL mapping experiments in plant breeding may involve multiple populations or pedigrees that are related through their ancestors. These known relationships have often been ignored for the sake of statistical analysis, despite their potential increase in power of mapping. We describe here a Bayesian method for QTL mapping in complex plant populations and reported the results from its application to a (previously analysed) potato data set. This Bayesian method was originally developed for human genetics data, and we have proved that it is useful for complex plant populations as well, based on a sensitivity analysis that was performed here. The method accommodates robustness to complex structures in pedigree data, full flexibility in the estimation of the number of QTL across multiple chromosomes, thereby accounting for uncertainties in the transmission of QTL and marker alleles due to incomplete marker information, and the simultaneous inclusion of non-genetic factors affecting the quantitative trait.