Many studies have confirmed that the long term use of biological agents targeting TNFalpha in therapy for rheumatoid arthritis give rise to sustained improvement in symptoms and signs of disease provided the anti-TNF agent is efficacious and of low immunogenicity. The current regimes for infliximab 3 or 10 mg/kg infusion in combination with weekly oral methotrexate, or of subcutaneous etanercept 25 mg twice per week fulfil these criteria. D2E7, a 'human' antibody produced by phage display, has also demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. It has recently emerged that anti-TNF therapy protects joints from structural damage. One year data for infliximab and methotrexate combination therapy suggest that this regime reduces disability. In early RA, etanercept acts more rapidly than methotrexate to decrease symptoms and retard progression of erosions. In conclusion, for patients with established and early RA, anti-TNF therapies set a new standard for symptom control and joint protection.