Risk factors for incident retinopathy in a diabetic and nondiabetic population: the Hoorn study

Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Feb;121(2):245-51. doi: 10.1001/archopht.121.2.245.


Objective: To investigate the effect of glycosylated hemoglobin, age, sex, hypertension, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, serum lipid levels, and smoking on the incidence of retinopathy in persons with normal and abnormal glucose metabolism.

Methods: The incidence of retinopathy was determined in 233 individuals, aged 50 to 74 years, by ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography at baseline and after an average follow-up of 9.4 years. Relative risks for retinopathy, estimated by odds ratios, were calculated for tertiles of cardiovascular risk factors at baseline. Logistic regression analysis was used, without and with adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, and glucose metabolism.

Results: The cumulative incidences of retinopathy among individuals with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose metabolism were 7.3%, 13.6%, and 17.5%, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios for retinopathy were 2.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-5.49) for hypertension and 3.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-9.72) and 8.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.85-40.60) for the highest tertiles of glycosylated hemoglobin level and waist-hip ratio, respectively. No consistent or statistically significant associations with retinopathy were present for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and serum levels of triglycerides and total, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P>.05 for all).

Conclusion: Glycemia, hypertension, and abdominal obesity are determinants for retinopathy in a general population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose
  • Body Constitution
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / etiology
  • Female
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Incidence
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands / epidemiology
  • Obesity / complications
  • Odds Ratio
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Risk Factors


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Lipids