Bence Jones protein in urine (immunoglobulin free-light-chains) is characteristic of light-chain multiple myeloma. We aimed to compare a quantitative immunoassay for serum free-light-chains with urine tests. Of 224 patients with light-chain myeloma tested at entry to clinical trials, all were correctly identified from serum samples. During monitoring of 82 patients, changes in serum and urine free-light-chains corresponded, but urine became negative for free-light-chains in 26 patients, whereas it remained abnormal in serum in 73 patients. Serum assays could replace Bence Jones protein urine tests for patients with light-chain multiple myeloma.