Autologous skeletal myoblast transplantation might improve postinfarction ventricular function, but graft viability and differentiation (ie, proof of concept) has not been shown. A 72-year-old man had autologous cultured myoblasts from his vastus lateralis injected to an area of transmural inferior myocardial infarction in non-reperfused scar tissue. He showed improvement in symptoms and left-ventricular ejection fraction. When he died 17.5 months after the procedure, the grafted post-infarction scar showed well developed skeletal myotubes with a preserved contractile apparatus. 65% of myotubes expressed the slow myosin isoform and 33% coexpressed the slow and fast isoforms (vs 44% and 0.6%, respectively, in skeletal muscle). Myoblast grafts can survive and show a switch to slow-twitch fibres, which might allow sustained improvement in cardiac function.