Primary endobronchial actinomycosis is an extremely rare disease that presents with endobronchial mass. We report 2 cases of primary endobronchial actinomycosis associated with broncholithiasis. There was no foreign body material, suggesting that these broncholiths were formed endogenously. Even though it is very rare, endobronchial actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of calcified endobronchial mass, especially when there is no clinical or radiological evidence of a granulomatous infection, such as tuberculosis, and the yellowish materials obstructing the bronchi are seen during bronchoscopy.
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