Purpose: To investigate the refractive status and factors associated with myopia by a population-based survey of Japanese adults.
Methods: A total of 2168 subjects aged 40 to 79 years, randomly selected from a local community, were assessed in a cross-sectional study. The spherical equivalent of the refractive error was calculated and used in a multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between myopia and possible related factors.
Results: The mean (+/- SD) of the spherical equivalent was -0.70 +/- 1.40 diopters (D) in men, and -0.50 +/- 1.44 D in women. Based on +/- 0.5 D cutoff points, the prevalence of myopia, emmetropia, and hypermetropia were 45.7%, 40.8%, and 13.5% in men, and 38.3%, 43.1%, and 18.6% in women, respectively. A 10-year increase in age was associated with reduced risk of myopia [men: odds ratio (OR) = 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.62; women: OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.54-0.78]. In men, myopia was significantly associated with higher education (high school: OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3; college: OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1) and management occupations (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). For women, high income (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), and clerical (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4) and sales/service occupations (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6) were also associated with myopia.
Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in a Japanese population was similar to that in other Asian surveys but higher than in black or white populations. Our study confirmed a higher prevalence of myopia among younger vs. older populations, and a significant association with education levels and socioeconomic factors.