Glucagon-like peptide 2 function in domestic animals

Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2003 Mar;24(2):103-22. doi: 10.1016/s0739-7240(02)00210-2.


Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a member of family of peptides derived from the proglucagon gene expressed in the intestines, pancreas and brain. Tissue-specific posttranslational processing of proglucagon leads to GLP-2 and GLP-1 secretion from the intestine and glucagon secretion from the pancreas. GLP-2 and GLP-1 are co-secreted from the enteroendocrine L-cells located in distal intestine in response to enteral nutrient ingestion, especially carbohydrate and fat. GLP-2 secretion is mediated by direct nutrient stimulation of the L-cells and indirect action from enteroendocrine and neural inputs, including GIP, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and the vagus nerve. GLP-2 is secreted as a 33-amino acid peptide and is rapidly cleaved by dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) to a truncated peptide which acts as a weak agonist with competitive antagonistic properties. GLP-2 acts to enhance nutrient absorption by inhibiting gastric motility and secretion and stimulating nutrient transport. GLP-2 also suppresses food intake when infused centrally. The trophic actions of GLP-2 are specific for the intestine and occur via stimulation of crypt cell proliferation and suppression of apoptosis in mucosal epithelial cells. GLP-2 reduces gut permeability, bacterial translocation and proinflammatory cytokine expression under conditions of intestinal inflammation and injury. The effects of GLP-2 are mediated by a G-protein-linked receptor that is localized to the intestinal mucosa and hypothalamus. The intestinal localization of the GLP-2R to neural and endocrine cells, but not enterocytes, suggests that its actions are mediated indirectly via a secondary signaling mechanism. The implications of GLP-2 in domestic animal production are largely unexplored. However, GLP-2 may have therapeutic application in treatment of gastrointestinal injury and diarrheal diseases that occur in developing neonatal and weanling animals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Animals, Domestic / physiology*
  • Cattle
  • Chickens
  • Dogs
  • Gene Expression
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 2
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Peptides / chemistry
  • Peptides / genetics
  • Peptides / physiology*
  • Receptors, Glucagon
  • Rodentia
  • Sequence Homology
  • Short Bowel Syndrome
  • Swine


  • GLP1R protein, human
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 2
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
  • Peptides
  • Receptors, Glucagon
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1