Signal transduction pathways inactivated during periods of starvation are implicated in the regulation of longevity in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, but the mechanisms responsible for life-span extension are poorly understood. Chronological life-span extension in S. cerevisiae cyr1 and sch9 mutants is mediated by the stress-resistance proteins Msn2/Msn4 and Rim15. Here we show that mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2) is required for survival extension in yeast. Deletion of SOD2 abolishes life-span extension in sch9Delta mutants and decreases survival in cyr1:mTn mutants. The overexpression of Sods--mitochondrial Sod2 and cytosolic CuZnSod (Sod1)--delays the age-dependent reversible inactivation of mitochondrial aconitase, a superoxide-sensitive enzyme, and extends survival by 30%. Deletion of the RAS2 gene, which functions upstream of CYR1, also doubles the mean life span by a mechanism that requires Msn2/4 and Sod2. These findings link mutations that extend chronological life span in S. cerevisiae to superoxide dismutases and suggest that the induction of other stress-resistance genes regulated by Msn2/4 and Rim15 is required for maximum longevity extension.