Socioeconomic status variables predict cardiovascular disease risk factors and prospective mortality risk among women with chest pain. The WISE Study

Behav Modif. 2003 Jan;27(1):54-67. doi: 10.1177/0145445502238693.


This study examined the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, and all-cause mortality in a cohort of women with chest pain. A total of 743 women (mean age = 59.6 years) with chest pain who were referred for coronary angiography completed a diagnostic protocol including CAD risk factor assessment, ischemic testing, psychosocial testing, and queries of SES. Patients were followed for about 2 years to track subsequent all-cause mortality. Results indicated that low SES was associated with CAD risk factors, including higher BMI and waist-hip ratios, cigarette smoking, lower reported activity levels, and a greater probability of hypertension. Low income also predicted all-cause mortality (RR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.4, 5.2), including after adjusting for proposed psychosocial and behavioral variables (RR = 5.9, 95% CI 1.2-29.7). Future research will require a thorough a priori focus on potential mechanisms to better understand SES effects on health.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cause of Death
  • Chest Pain / diagnosis*
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Disease / complications
  • Coronary Artery Disease / mortality*
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Assessment*
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Class*
  • United States