Inevitable glutathione, then and now

Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Jun;40(6):706-16.

Abstract

Glutathione a predominant tripeptide thiol compound of many prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is synthesized from its precursor amino acids eg. gamma-glutamate, cysteine and glycine. It is mainly involved in detoxication mechanisms through conjugation reactions. Other functions include thiol transfer, destruction of free radicals and metabolism of various exogenous and endogenous compounds. It becomes mandatory for a cell to manage high concentration of intracellular GSH to protect itself from chemical/dug abuse. Glutathione dependent enzymes viz: glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and gamma-glutamate transpeptidase facilitate protective manifestations. Liver serves as a glutathione-generating factor which supplies the kidney and intestine with other constituents of glutathione resynthesis. The principal mechanism of hepatocyte glutathione turnover appears to be cellular efflux. Kidney too plays an important role in organismic GSH homeostasis. Role of GSH in organs like lung, intestine and brain has recently been described. GSH involvement in programmed cell death has also been indicated. Immense interest makes the then "thee glutathione" as "inevitable glutathione". This article describes the role of this vital molecule in cell physiology and detoxication mechanisms in particular.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Transport
  • Biotransformation
  • Glutathione / metabolism*
  • Glutathione Disulfide
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Glutathione Reductase
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Homeostasis*
  • Humans
  • Organ Specificity
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Xenobiotics

Substances

  • Xenobiotics
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Glutathione Reductase
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Glutathione
  • Glutathione Disulfide