Objective: To examine whether exposures to anti-inflammatory and non-narcotic analgesic drugs are associated with risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
Methods: A case-control study was conducted among women living in upstate New York. The study involved 376 cases of NHL identified through the New York State Cancer Registry and 463 controls randomly selected from the Medicare beneficiary files and New York State driver's license records. Information regarding use of common medications in the past 20 years and potential confounding variables was obtained by telephone interview. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using an unconditional logistic regression model.
Results: There were non-significant increases in risk associated with ever use of cortisone injections and oral cortisone (OR = 1.44 (CI 0.98-2.11) for injections and 1.21 (CI 0.73-2.00) for oral cortisone, although there was no clear dose-response relationship with either type. On the other hand, the risk of NHL progressively increased with the frequency of use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and non-narcotic analgesic drugs (NSAID/NNAD) (p-value for trend 0.008). Women who used any of these medications daily for more than 10 years had an OR of 1.90 (CI 1.01-3.57), compared with those who used it less than once a month on average. The risk associated with long-term use was most pronounced for ibuprofen, intermediate for aspirin, and least for acetaminophen.
Conclusions: Because the population-attributable risk associated with NSAID/NNAD use is potentially large, our results need to be verified in further epidemiologic studies.