Ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury is characterized by nonspecific alveolar damage, lung edema, and hypoxemia occurring within 72 hours after lung transplantation. The most severe form may lead to primary graft failure and remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Over the past decade, better understanding of the mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury, improvements in the technique of lung preservation, and the development of a new preservation solution specifically for the lung have been associated with a reduction in the incidence of primary graft failure from approximately 30 to 15% or less. Several strategies have also been introduced into clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury with various degrees of success. However, only three randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials on ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury have been reported in the literature. In the future, the development of new agents and their application in prospective clinical trials are to be expected to prevent the occurrence of this potentially devastating complication and to further improve the success of lung transplantation.