Differential effects of haloperidol, risperidone, and clozapine exposure on cholinergic markers and spatial learning performance in rats

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003 Feb;28(2):300-9. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300039. Epub 2002 Jul 25.


Haloperidol (HAL), a potent typical antipsychotic, continues to be a frequently prescribed medication for behavioral disturbances associated particularly with schizophrenia despite well-documented adverse effects associated with its chronic use. Animal experiments have even indicated that HAL can damage cholinergic pathways and thus could be especially deleterious to those experiencing cognitive deficits. However, several recent clinical studies indicate that atypical antipsychotics may actually improve cognitive function in some patients, although this assertion requires further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of prior chronic (45- or 90-day) oral exposure to HAL and the atypical antipsychotics risperidone (RISP) and clozapine (CLOZ) on cognitive performance and central cholinergic markers in rats. All analyses were done after 4 days of drug washout in order to minimize direct drug effects. Learning performance and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) levels were assessed in a water maze task and with immunofluorescence staining, respectively. HAL significantly impaired learning performance after 90 but not after 45 days of treatment when compared to both vehicle controls and the atypical agents, while RISP slightly improved task performance. Both 45 and 90 days of previous HAL exposure reduced ChAT staining in several brain regions, including the cortex, caudate-putamen, and hippocampus. ChAT staining in the caudate-putamen and hippocampus was also decreased after 90 days of RISP exposure, raising the possibility of deleterious cognitive effects after exposure to this dosage for longer periods of time. The results suggest that antipsychotic drugs exert differential and temporally dependent effects on central cholinergic neurons and learning performance.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / enzymology
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase / metabolism*
  • Cholinergic Fibers / drug effects
  • Cholinergic Fibers / enzymology
  • Clozapine / pharmacology*
  • Haloperidol / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects*
  • Maze Learning / physiology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Risperidone / pharmacology*
  • Spatial Behavior / drug effects
  • Spatial Behavior / physiology


  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase
  • Clozapine
  • Haloperidol
  • Risperidone