Regulation of floral scent production in petunia revealed by targeted metabolomics

Phytochemistry. 2003 Mar;62(6):997-1008. doi: 10.1016/s0031-9422(02)00707-0.


Petunia hybrida line W115 (Mitchell) has large white flowers that produce a pleasant fragrance. By applying solid phase micro extraction (SPME) techniques coupled to GC-MS analysis, volatile emission was monitored in vivo using a targeted metabolomics approach. Mature flowers released predominantly benzenoid compounds of which benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, methylbenzoate, phenylethylalcohol, iso-eugenol and benzylbenzoate were most abundant. This emission had a circadian rhythm reaching its maximum at dusk. During petal limb expansion two sesquiterpenes were emitted by the petunia flowers, tentatively identified as germacrene D and cadina-3,9-diene. In vitro analysis showed that the petal limbs and stigma were the main producers of the benzenoids and sesquiterpenes, respectively. Moreover, comparison of in vivo and in vitro analysis indicated that volatiles were not stored during periods of low emission but rather were synthesized de novo. DNA-microarray analysis revealed that genes of the pathways leading to the production of volatile benzenoids were upregulated late during the day, preceding the increase of volatile emission. RNA-gel blot analyses confirmed that the levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) synthase transcripts increased towards the evening. Our results suggest that the circadian production of volatile benzenoids in petunia W115 is, at least partly, regulated at the transcript level.

MeSH terms

  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Flowers / chemistry
  • Flowers / genetics
  • Flowers / metabolism
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Odorants*
  • Petunia / chemistry
  • Petunia / genetics*
  • Petunia / metabolism*
  • RNA, Plant / genetics
  • RNA, Plant / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Volatilization


  • RNA, Plant