Comparison of the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content of freeze-dried and air-dried marionberry, strawberry, and corn grown using conventional, organic, and sustainable agricultural practices

J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Feb 26;51(5):1237-41. doi: 10.1021/jf020635c.


Secondary phenolic metabolites play an important role in plant defense mechanisms, and increasing evidence indicates that many are important in human health. To date, few studies have investigated the impact of various agricultural practices on levels of secondary plant metabolites. To address this issue, the total phenolic (TP) content of marionberries, strawberries, and corn grown by sustainable, organic, or conventional cultural practices were measured. Additionally, the effects of three common postharvest processing treatments (freezing, freeze-drying, and air-drying) on the TP content of these agricultural products were also investigated. Statistically higher levels of TPs were consistently found in organically and sustainably grown foods as compared to those produced by conventional agricultural practices. In all samples, freeze-drying preserved higher levels of TPs in comparison with air-drying.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture / methods
  • Air
  • Ascorbic Acid / analysis*
  • Desiccation
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Food Preservation / methods
  • Food, Organic / analysis
  • Fragaria / chemistry*
  • Freeze Drying
  • Freezing
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Zea mays / chemistry*


  • Phenols
  • Ascorbic Acid