Frequent loss of heterogeneity in prostate cancer cells and linkage studies of families affected by hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) have implied that the short arm of chromosome 8, specifically 8p22-23, may harbor a prostate-cancer-susceptibility gene. In a recent study, seven potentially important mutations in the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 gene (MSR1), located at 8p22, were observed in families affected with HPC, and an indication of co-segregation between these mutations and prostate cancer was reported. In an attempt to confirm linkage at 8p22-23, we performed linkage analyses in 57 families affected with HPC (ascertained throughout Sweden) by using 13 markers on the short arm of chromosome 8. In the complete set of families, evidence for prostate cancer linkage was observed at 8p22-23, with a peak hold of 1.08 (P=0.03), observed at D8S1731, approximately 1 cM centromeric to the MSR1 gene. At marker D8S1135, the closest marker to MSR1, a hlod of 1.07 (P=0.03) was observed. Evidence of linkage was seen in families with early-onset HPC and in families with a small number of affected individuals. The peak multipoint non-parametric linkage score was 2.01 (P=0.03) at D8S552 in the 14 pedigrees with mean age at onset <65 years, and 2.25 (P=0.01) at D8S1731 in the 36 pedigrees with fewer than five affected family members. Thus, we have confirmed evidence for prostate cancer linkage at 8p22-23. Follow-up studies to evaluate the possible association between prostate cancer and genes in this region, especially the MSR1 gene, are warranted.