Data for 479 patients were analyzed to assess the impact of methicillin resistance on the outcomes of patients with Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections (SSIs). Patients infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) had a greater 90-day mortality rate than did patients infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA; adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-7.2). Patients infected with MRSA had a greater duration of hospitalization after infection (median additional days, 5; P<.001), although this was not significant on multivariate analysis (P=.11). Median hospital charges were 29,455 dollars for control subjects, 52,791 dollars for patients with MSSA SSI, and 92,363 dollars for patients with MRSA SSI (P<.001 for all group comparisons). Patients with MRSA SSI had a 1.19-fold increase in hospital charges (P=.03) and had mean attributable excess charges of 13,901 dollars per SSI compared with patients who had MSSA SSIs. Methicillin resistance is independently associated with increased mortality and hospital charges among patients with S. aureus SSI.