The majority of proteins involved in vertebrate phototransduction are expressed specifically in photoreceptors. Recoverin and rhodopsin kinase are expressed primarily in retinal photoreceptors and they interact with each other in a Ca2+-dependent manner. This Ca2+-dependent interaction has been studied extensively in vitro. Experiments utilizing animal models and electrophysiological approaches have started to provide important insight regarding its invivo function. Recoverin can be viewed as a negative regulator of rhodopsin kinase in vertebrate phototransduction. This interaction imparts a negative feedback loop at the receptor level and may play an important role in light adaptation and in recovery.