The dog is a commonly used animal model by virtue of its size, well-characterized physiology, and ease of handling. For these reasons and others, dogs are also useful in pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies during the development of both human and veterinary pharmaceutical products. In comparison with humans, or with other animals, dogs have some unique physiologic attributes that can affect the disposition of drugs. Species differences in gastrointestinal physiology, metabolism, renal function, and protein binding can affect the correlation of the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of dogs with those of other species. With the use of relevant examples, this article will provide an introduction to characteristics of dog physiology and their impact on pharmacokinetics, metabolism, drug disposition, toxicity, and dose selection.