Transcriptional profiling identifies Id2 function in dendritic cell development

Nat Immunol. 2003 Apr;4(4):380-6. doi: 10.1038/ni903. Epub 2003 Feb 24.


Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells with a pivotal role in antigen-specific immune responses. Here, we found that the helix-loop-helix transcription factor Id2 is up-regulated during DC development in vitro and crucial for the development of distinct DC subsets in vivo. Id2-/- mice lack Langerhans cells (LCs), the cutaneous contingent of DCs, and the splenic CD8alpha+ DC subset is markedly reduced. Mice deficient for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta also lack LCs, and we demonstrate here that, in DCs, TGF-beta induces Id2 expression. We also show that Id2 represses B cell genes in DCs. These findings reveal a TGF-beta-Id2 signaling pathway in DCs and suggest a mechanism by which Id2 affects the lineage choice of B cell and DC progenitors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics
  • Cell Differentiation / immunology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism
  • Receptors, Interleukin-4 / metabolism
  • Repressor Proteins*
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • Up-Regulation


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • ID2 protein, human
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2
  • Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Receptors, Interleukin-4
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta