The kinetics of antibody responses to the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite-induced erythrocyte surface antigens (PIESAs) in 26 Kenyan children were examined by use of flow cytometry and agglutination assays. Although 19 of the 26 children mounted a primary antibody response to PIESAs within 2 weeks of experiencing an acute episode and maintained high antibody levels for at least 12 weeks, the remaining 7 children had responses that were weak and brief. Resistance to reparasitization was decreased in the children with short-lived responses. Isotype profiles of responses in 11 of the children studied suggest that they may have failed to switch to IgG after the initial IgM response. These data suggest that children vary widely in their ability to respond to PIESAs and that, in some individuals or with certain PIESA variants, short-lived antibody responses are induced that may be associated with poor antibody class switching.