Background: Postprandial lipemia is important in the development of coronary artery disease because of elevated postprandial triacylglycerol-rich plasma lipoproteins and suppressed HDL-cholesterol concentrations. We showed in healthy subjects a possible association between postprandial lipid metabolism and the responses of the duodenal incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide after meals rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), respectively.
Objective: The objective was to compare the postprandial responses (8 h) of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, triacylglycerol, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and GLP-1 to saturated- and monounsaturated-rich test meals.
Design: Twelve overweight patients with type 2 diabetes ingested 3 meals randomly: an energy-free soup with 50 g carbohydrate (control meal), the control meal plus 100 g butter, and the control meal plus 80 g olive oil. Triacylglycerol responses were measured in total plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and a chylomicron-poor fraction.
Results: No significant differences in the glucose, insulin, or fatty acid responses to the 2 fat-rich meals were seen. The plasma triacylglycerol and chylomicron triacylglycerol responses were highest after the butter meal. HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly after the butter meal but did not change significantly after the olive oil meal. GLP-1 responses were highest after the olive oil meal.
Conclusions: Olive oil induced lower triacylglycerol concentrations and higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did butter, without eliciting significant changes in glucose, insulin, or fatty acids. Furthermore, olive oil induced higher concentrations of GLP-1, which may indicate a relation between fatty acid composition, incretin responses, and triacylglycerol metabolism postprandially in patients with type 2 diabetes.