Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes

Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Mar;77(3):605-11. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/77.3.605.


Background: Postprandial lipemia is important in the development of coronary artery disease because of elevated postprandial triacylglycerol-rich plasma lipoproteins and suppressed HDL-cholesterol concentrations. We showed in healthy subjects a possible association between postprandial lipid metabolism and the responses of the duodenal incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide after meals rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), respectively.

Objective: The objective was to compare the postprandial responses (8 h) of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, triacylglycerol, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and GLP-1 to saturated- and monounsaturated-rich test meals.

Design: Twelve overweight patients with type 2 diabetes ingested 3 meals randomly: an energy-free soup with 50 g carbohydrate (control meal), the control meal plus 100 g butter, and the control meal plus 80 g olive oil. Triacylglycerol responses were measured in total plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and a chylomicron-poor fraction.

Results: No significant differences in the glucose, insulin, or fatty acid responses to the 2 fat-rich meals were seen. The plasma triacylglycerol and chylomicron triacylglycerol responses were highest after the butter meal. HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly after the butter meal but did not change significantly after the olive oil meal. GLP-1 responses were highest after the olive oil meal.

Conclusions: Olive oil induced lower triacylglycerol concentrations and higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did butter, without eliciting significant changes in glucose, insulin, or fatty acids. Furthermore, olive oil induced higher concentrations of GLP-1, which may indicate a relation between fatty acid composition, incretin responses, and triacylglycerol metabolism postprandially in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Butter
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Chylomicrons / blood
  • Coronary Artery Disease / blood
  • Coronary Artery Disease / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids / administration & dosage
  • Fatty Acids / pharmacology*
  • Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated / administration & dosage
  • Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / blood
  • Glucagon / blood*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity
  • Olive Oil
  • Peptide Fragments / blood*
  • Plant Oils
  • Postprandial Period*
  • Protein Precursors / blood*
  • Triglycerides / blood*
  • Triglycerides / chemistry


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Chylomicrons
  • Fatty Acids
  • Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  • Insulin
  • Olive Oil
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Plant Oils
  • Protein Precursors
  • Triglycerides
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Butter
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon