TGFbeta-induced factor: a candidate gene for high myopia

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Mar;44(3):1012-5. doi: 10.1167/iovs.02-0058.


Purpose: To investigate the coding exons of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-induced factor (TGIF) for mutations in Chinese patients with high myopia.

Methods: Seventy-one individuals with high myopia of -6.00 D or less and 105 control subjects were screened by DNA sequencing for sequence alterations. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were performed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their interactions in TGIF that may be associated with myopia.

Results: Six SNPs showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) between patient and control subject in univariate analysis. Four of them cause codon changes: G223R, G231S, P241T, and A262G. Among all the SNPs that entered multivariate analysis, only 657(T-->G) showed statistical significance in the logistic regression model (odds ratio 0.133; 95% confidence interval 0.037-0.488; P = 0.002).

Conclusions: TGIF is a probable candidate gene for high myopia. Further studies are needed to identify the underlying mechanism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asian People / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 / genetics
  • Exons
  • Female
  • Genes, Homeobox*
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics*
  • Hong Kong / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Myopia / ethnology
  • Myopia / genetics*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics*


  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • TGIF1 protein, human
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta