An understanding of the characteristics of women who do not obtain cervical cytology may shed light on procedures which can be instituted by physicians and public health workers to increase use of screening. Of particular interest are women at high risk of cervical cancer. We interviewed a random sample of about 700 blacks living in central Buffalo census tracts in regard to their past use of pelvic examinations as well as circumstances surrounding such use or non-use. We employed only data on screening which was verified in records. We found that there was decreasing use with increasing age and lack of contact with physicians, clinics, or hospitals. The relationship between increasing use and increasing education was found to be a function of the fact that women with more education are likely to be younger. There was clear evidence that making such examinations part of the contact women have with physicians or hospitals for any purpose, including childbirth, would increase the proportions screened.