Background: An inhibitor of advanced glycation, OPB-9195, retards the progression of nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate histologically the role of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in the development of diabetic nephropathy and investigate whether inhibition of CML accumulation by OPB-9195 is associated directly with the prevention of glomerular lesions in OLETF rats.
Methods: Kidneys of OLETF and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were obtained at ages 7, 20, 50, and 68 weeks after collecting their blood and urine samples. OPB-9195 had been administered to the rats from age 24 weeks to the end of the experiments. CML in kidneys was detected by using a monoclonal antibody against CML according to an indirect immunofluorescence technique. CML-positive glomerular area was measured using NIH Image software (Research Services Branch of NIMH, Bethesda, MD). Hyalinized and/or sclerotic areas in glomeruli and mesangial and glomerular volume were measured using a point-counting technique.
Results: CML-positive area in glomeruli correlated closely not only with urinary albumin excretion (r = 0.912; P = 0.001), but also with volumes of mesangium and hyalinized and/or sclerotic lesions (r = 0.859; P = 0.0019 and r = 0.833; P = 0.0027, respectively). Treatment with OPB-9195 reduced CML-positive area and prevented the increase in mesangial volume, with no significant change in glomerular volume at age 68 weeks. The volume of hyalinized and/or sclerotic lesions also decreased by treatment with OPB-9195 in three of four rats at age 68 weeks.
Conclusion: CML is a major advanced glycation end product contributing to the development of diabetic nephropathy, and inhibition of its accumulation by OPB-9195 results in amelioration of glomerular lesions in OLETF rats.