We report a large monocentric case series of 82 patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). No germline mutations of the PPH1 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II) were found in any of the 19 patients tested. PAH was the direct cause of death in 72% of cases. Survival rates of the overall population at 1, 2, and 3 years were 73, 60, and 47%, respectively. Survival was significantly poorer in patients in New York Heart Association functional class III-IV at the time of diagnosis, as compared with those in functional class I-II with respective rates of 60, 45, and 28% versus 100, 90, 84% at 1, 2, and 3 years (p < 0.0001). Subsequently, we analyzed prognostic factors in patients in functional class III-IV. Univariate analysis indicated that CD4 lymphocyte count of more than 212 cells mm(-3), the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), and epoprostenol infusion were related with a better survival. On multivariate analysis only CD4 lymphocyte count was an independent predictor of survival, presumably because CART and epoprostenol infusion were strongly linked in our patient population. These results suggest that patients with severe human immunodeficiency virus-associated PAH should be considered for long-term epoprostenol infusion in association with CART.