A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms

Clin Rehabil. 2003 Feb;17(1):21-9. doi: 10.1191/0269215503cr581oa.


Objectives: To determine whether plant-derived cannabis medicinal extracts (CME) can alleviate neurogenic symptoms unresponsive to standard treatment, and to quantify adverse effects.

Design: A consecutive series of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled single-patient cross-over trials with two-week treatment periods.

Setting: Patients attended as outpatients, but took the CME at home.

Subjects: Twenty-four patients with multiple sclerosis (18), spinal cord injury (4), brachial plexus damage (1), and limb amputation due to neurofibromatosis (1).

Intervention: Whole-plant extracts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), 1:1 CBD:THC, or matched placebo were self-administered by sublingual spray at doses determined by titration against symptom relief or unwanted effects within the range of 2.5-120 mg/24 hours. Measures used: Patients recorded symptom, well-being and intoxication scores on a daily basis using visual analogue scales. At the end of each two-week period an observer rated severity and frequency of symptoms on numerical rating scales, administered standard measures of disability (Barthel Index), mood and cognition, and recorded adverse events.

Results: Pain relief associated with both THC and CBD was significantly superior to placebo. Impaired bladder control, muscle spasms and spasticity were improved by CME in some patients with these symptoms. Three patients had transient hypotension and intoxication with rapid initial dosing of THC-containing CME.

Conclusions: Cannabis medicinal extracts can improve neurogenic symptoms unresponsive to standard treatments. Unwanted effects are predictable and generally well tolerated. Larger scale studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / administration & dosage
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / adverse effects
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / pharmacology*
  • Cannabidiol / administration & dosage
  • Cannabidiol / adverse effects
  • Cannabidiol / pharmacology*
  • Cannabis
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Dronabinol / administration & dosage
  • Dronabinol / adverse effects
  • Dronabinol / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Hypotension / chemically induced
  • Muscle Spasticity / drug therapy*
  • Nervous System Diseases / complications
  • Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Phytotherapy
  • Placebos
  • Plant Preparations / therapeutic use*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Spasm / drug therapy*
  • Urination Disorders / drug therapy*


  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • Placebos
  • Plant Preparations
  • Cannabidiol
  • Dronabinol