This study compared the serum lipid concentrations after a single dose of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) or long-chain triglycerides (LCT) between individuals grouped according to the body mass index (BMI). Twenty-five males participated as volunteers, the test diet containing 10 g of MCT or LCT. Blood samples were collected up to 6 h after the intake of a test diets. The LCT diet resulted in significantly greater increases in areas under the curves (AUCs) for serum and chylomicron triglyceride in the BMI > or = 23 kg/m2 group than those in the BMI < 23 kg/m2 group. The magnitude of response after intake of the MCT diet by the BMI > or = 23 kg/m2 group was significantly lower than that after the LCT diet. These results suggest that, in subjects with BMI > or = 23 kg/m2, the intake of MCT is preferable to that of LCT for maintaining postprandial triglyceride at a low concentration.