Enormous advances in the diagnosis and management of heart disease in pediatric patient have taken place during the last-four decades. In this review the authors will concentrate on the developments within the last five to ten years. It will deal with what may be called medical advances. Recent advances in molecular genetics and defining the familial patterns have led to finding that certain genetic and molecular factors are linked to congenital heart disease and arrythmia, thus providing opportunity for improved genetic counseling and future gene therapy. Medical treatment of congenital heart disease targets not only the augmentation of ventricular contractility (positive inotropy) but also addresses the neuro-humoral derangement associated with it. The ultrasound technology for the evaluation of the heart has come a long way from the early A-mode and M-mode capabilities to color Doppler, 2-dimentional and 3-dimentional capabilities.