Purpose: To evaluate the influence of dopamine and diltiazem on renal function and markers for acute renal failure, including urinary alpha-glutathion s-transferase (alpha-GST), alpha-1-microglobulin (alpha(1)-MG) and N-acetyl-ss-glucosaminidase (ss-NAG) after extracorporeal circulation.
Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial we evaluated the efficacy of dopamine (2.5 micro g x kg(-1) x min(-1)), diltiazem (2 micro g x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or placebo administered over 48 hr postoperatively to maintain renal tubular integrity in 60 elective cardiac surgery patients. alpha-GST, alpha(1)-MG, ss-NAG, and creatinine clearance were measured from urine collected during surgery (T0), the first four hours (T1), 24 hr (T2) and 48 hr (T3) postoperatively.
Results: Cumulative urine output in the diltiazem group (9.0 +/- 2.8 L) increased significantly compared with placebo (7.0 +/- 1.6 L), but not compared with dopamine (7.8 +/- 1.8 L). Creatinine clearance showed no significant intergroup differences. In all groups alpha(1)-MG increased from T0 to T3, but we found no significant intergroup differences. alpha-GST increased significantly from T0 to T3 in the placebo (2.1 +/- 1.8 to 11.4 +/- 8.6 micro g x L(-1)) and in the dopamine groups (2.7 +/- 1.8 to 13.6 +/- 14.9 micro g x L(-1)), but not in the diltiazem group (1.8 +/- 1.4 to 3.2 +/- 3.2 micro g x L(-1)). Forty-eight hours postoperatively alpha-GST was significantly lower in the diltiazem group than in both other groups.
Conclusions: Diltiazem stimulates urine output, reduces excretion of alpha-GST and ss-NAG and may be useful to maintain tubular integrity after cardiac surgery.