Binderoid complete cleft lip/palate

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003 Mar;111(3):1000-10. doi: 10.1097/01.PRS.0000046244.08487.BF.


A small subset of infants with complete cleft lip/palate look different because they have nasolabiomaxillary hypoplasia and orbital hypotelorism. The authors' purpose was to define the clinical and radiographic features of these patients and to comment on operative management, classification, and terminology. The authors reviewed 695 patients with all forms of incomplete and complete cleft lip/palate and identified 15 patients with nasolabiomaxillary hypoplasia and orbital hypotelorism. All 15 patients had complete labial clefting (5 percent of 320 patients with complete cleft lip/palate), equally divided between bilateral and unilateral forms. The female-to-male ratio was 2:1. Of the seven infants with unilateral complete cleft lip/palate, one had an intact secondary palate and all had a hypoplastic septum, small alar cartilages, narrow basilar columella, underdeveloped contralateral philtral ridge, ill-defined Cupid's bow, thin vermilion-mucosa on both sides of the cleft, and a diminutive premaxilla. Of the eight infants with bilateral complete cleft lip, one had an intact secondary palate. The features were the same as in patients with unilateral cleft, but with a more severely hypoplastic nasal tip, conical columella, tiny prolabium, underdeveloped lateral labial elements, and small/mobile premaxilla. Central midfacial hypoplasia and hypotelorism did not change during childhood and adolescence. Intermedial canthal measurements remained 1.5 SD below normal age-matched controls. Skeletal analysis (mean age, 10 years; range, 4 months to 19 years) documented maxillary retrusion (mean sagittal maxillomandibular discrepancy, 13.7 mm; range, 3 to 17 mm), absent anterior nasal spine, and a class III relationship. The mean sella nasion A point (S-N-A) angle of 74 degrees (range, 65 to 79 degrees) and sella nasion B point (S-N-B) angle of 81 degrees (range, 71 to 90 degrees) were significantly different from age-matched norms ( = 0.0007 and = 0.004, respectively). The ipsilateral central and lateral incisors were absent in all children with unilateral cleft, whereas a single-toothed premaxilla was typically found in the bilateral patients. Several modifications were necessary during primary nasolabial repair because of the diminutive bony and soft-tissue elements. All adolescent patients had Le Fort I maxillary advancement and construction of an adult nasal framework with costochondral or cranial graft. Other often-used procedures were bony augmentation of the anterior maxilla; cartilage grafts to the nasal tip and columella; and dermal grafting to the median tubercle, philtral ridge, and basal columella. Infants with complete unilateral or bilateral cleft lip/palate in association with nasolabiomaxillary hypoplasia and orbital hypotelorism do not belong on the holoprosencephalic spectrum because they have normal head circumference, stature, and intelligence, nor should they be referred to as having Binder anomaly. The authors propose the term cleft lip/palate for these children. Early recognition of this entity is important for counseling parents and because alterations in standard operative methods and orthodontic protocols are necessary.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anthropometry
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cleft Lip / diagnostic imaging
  • Cleft Lip / surgery*
  • Cleft Palate / diagnostic imaging
  • Cleft Palate / surgery*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Radiography
  • Retrospective Studies