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Review
, 21 (1), 135-45

Burning Mouth Syndrome

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Review

Burning Mouth Syndrome

Lisa A Drage et al. Dermatol Clin.

Abstract

Burning mouth syndrome is the occurrence of oral pain in a patient with a normal oral mucosal examination. It can be caused by both organic and psychologic or psychiatric factors, which can be broken down into local, systemic. psychologic or psychiatric, and idiopathic causes. The most frequently associated conditions are psychiatric (depression, anxiety, or cancerphobia); xerostomia; nutritional deficiency; allergic contact dermatitis; candidiasis; denture-related pain: and parafunctional behavior. Multiple different factors contributing to the oral pain are common, and a systematic approach to the evaluation is important. Identification of correctable causes of BMS should be emphasized and psychiatric causes should not be invoked without thorough evaluation of the patient. A directed history and careful oral examination must be completed to exclude local diseases and identify clues to potential causes. Assessment of medications, psychiatric history and background, and selected laboratory and patch tests may help identify the etiologies of these symptoms. Treatment should be tailored to each patient and may best be managed in a multidisciplinary approach with input from dermatologists, dentists, psychiatrists. otorhinolaryngologists, and primary care providers. A thoughtful and structured evaluation of the patient with BMS has been associated with improvement in about 70% of patients. The remaining patients may benefit from empiric therapy with a chronic pain protocol and continued supportive interactions.

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