Impulsivity and rapid discounting of delayed hypothetical rewards in cocaine-dependent individuals

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003 Feb;11(1):18-25. doi: 10.1037//1064-1297.11.1.18.


In this study, crack/cocaine-dependent (CD) and non-drug-using matched control (MC) participants were presented with hypothetical immediate and delayed rewards, with 16 delay conditions ranging from 5 min to 25 years. All participants were presented with hypothetical monetary rewards; however, the CD group was also presented with hypothetical crack/cocaine rewards. The objective value of the rewards ranged from $1 to $1,000. Hyperbolic discounting functions provided a good fit of the data. The CD group discounted monetary rewards at a higher rate than the MC group did, and the CD group discounted crack/cocaine rewards at a higher rate than it did monetary rewards. Moreover, scores on self-report measures indicated greater impulsivity in the CD group when compared with the MC group.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Impulsive Behavior / psychology*
  • Intelligence Tests
  • Male
  • Motivation
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Reward*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors