1. Eighteen healthy CYP2C19 genotyped male subjects were administered a 20-mg oral dose of omeprazole (OP) alone or received troleandomycin (TAO) 500 mg daily for 2 days before the dose of OP was administered. Blood samples were obtained and OP 5-hydroxyomeprazole (5-OH-OP) and OP sulfone in plasma were determined by reversed-phase HPLC. 2. The mean C(max), AUC and CL for OP in poor metabolizers (PMs) were greater with TAO than without TAO. The C(max) and AUC of 5-OH-OP in PMs were significantly (p < 0.05) less with TAO than without TAO. The differences in 5-OH-OP between heterozygous extensive metabolizers (EMs) with TAO versus without TAO were similar to those observed in PMs, except for the AUC. However, in homozygous EMs, there were no statistical differences for the effect of TAO. 3. The effect of TAO on the metabolism of OP and its two principal metabolites differs in different genotype groups of CYP2C19. CYP3A4 not only plays a dominant role in the formation of OP sulfone, but also it contributes to the 5-hydroxylation of OP. Both CYP2C19 and CYP3A contribute to the further elimination of 5-OH-OP and OP sulfone.