Homocysteine is a vascular risk factor including cerebral macroangiopathy and microangiopathy. Furthermore, there might also be an association with cognitive disorders including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Hyperhomocysteinemia linked with cognitive impairment might be an indirect marker for low concentrations of vitamin B 12, vitamin B 6 or folate, resulting from low intake or from an impaired transport of the vitamins to the brain. Another possibility is a direct harmful effect of homocysteine to cognition via vascular and neurotoxic pathophysiologic mechanisms. Because hyperhomocysteinemia is a potentially reversible risk factor and can be identified early, it should be investigated by prospective intervention studies whether lowering homocysteine levels by vitamin supplementation could reduce incidence and progression of cognitive disorders.