Hopelessness, internal-external locus of control, and depression

J Clin Psychol. 1976 Apr;32(2):299-300. doi: 10.1002/1097-4679(197604)32:2<299::aid-jclp2270320221>3.0.co;2-g.


This research examined the relationship between hopelessness, defined as a system of negative expectancies about the future, and two theoretically relevant constructs: internal-external locus of control, and depression. Two samples of 67 and 44 undergraduates were administered the Beck, et al. Hopelessness Scale, the Rotter Internal-External Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The data of both samples supported the predictions that hopelessness would be positively related to external locus of control and to depression.

MeSH terms

  • Depression / etiology*
  • Frustration*
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control*
  • Psychological Tests