Bcl-xL, a close homolog of Bcl2, is an important regulator of apoptosis and is overexpressed in human cancer. Phosphorylation of Bcl-xL can be induced by microtubule-damaging drugs such as taxol or 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME). By site-directed mutagenesis studies, we have identified that serine 62 is the necessary site for taxol- or 2-ME-induced Bcl-xL phosphorylation in prostate cancer cells. Further studies with the inhibitor of Jun kinase (JNK) and phosphorylation null mutant of Bcl-xL reveal the augmentative role of JNK-mediated Bcl-xL phosphorylation in apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. In summary, our studies suggest that the phosphorylation of Bcl-xL by stress response kinase signaling might oppose the anti-apoptotic function of Bcl-xL to permit prostate cancer cells to die by apoptosis.